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Ground Models

The ground models in PyWake are used to model the effects that the ground has on the inflow and wake.

Install PyWake if needed

# Install PyWake if needed
    import py_wake
except ModuleNotFoundError:
    !pip install git+


The Mirror ground model lets the ground mirror the wake deficit. It is implemented by adding wakes from underground mirrored wind turbines

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from py_wake.ground_models import Mirror
from py_wake import NOJ
from py_wake.flow_map import YZGrid

from import V80, Hornsrev1Site

site = Hornsrev1Site()
windTurbines = V80()
wt_x, wt_y = site.initial_position.T

wfm = NOJ(site, windTurbines, k=.5, groundModel=Mirror())

wfm([0], [0], wd=0).flow_map(YZGrid(x=0, y=np.arange(-300, 100, 1) + .1, z=np.arange(-100, 200))).plot_wake_map()
plt.xlabel('x [m]')
plt.ylabel('y [m]')
/builds/TOPFARM/PyWake/py_wake/deficit_models/ UserWarning: The NOJ model is not representative of the setup used in the literature. For this, use py_wake.literature.noj.Jensen_1983 instead
  DeprecatedModel.__init__(self, 'py_wake.literature.noj.Jensen_1983')
Text(0, 0.5, 'y [m]')