Engineering Wind Farm Models Object
PyWake contains three general engineering wind farm models, namely PropagateDownwind, All2AllIerative and PropagateUpDownIterative.
The table below compares their properties:
/ 




Includes wakes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Includes blockage 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
Memory requirement 
High 
Low 
Low 
Simulation speed 
Slow 
Fast 
Medium 
In addition different [predefined models}(#PredefinedWindFarmModels) exits. The predefined models covers oftenused model combinations and models from the literature. I.e. they instantiates one of the abovementioned wind farm models with a combination of wake deficit models, superposition models, turbulence models, etc. However, these are easily customizable to study the impact of different models on the results.
PropagateDownwind
The PropagateDownwind
wind farm model is very fast as it only performs a minimum of deficit calculations. It iterates over all turbines in downstream order. In each iteration it calculates the effective wind speed at the current wind turbine as the free stream wind speed minus the sum of the deficit from upstream sources. Based on this effective wind speed, it calculates the deficit caused by the current turbine on all downstream destinations. Note, that this procedure neglects upstream
blockage effects.
for wt in wind turbines in downstream order:
ws_eff[wt] = ws[wt]  superposition(deficit[from_upstream_src,to_wt])
ct = windTurbines.ct(ws_eff[wt])
deficit[from_wt,to_downstream_dst] = wakeDeficitModel(ct, distances[from_wt,to_downstream_dst], ...)
The proceedure is illustrated in the animation below:
Iteration 1: WT0 sees the free wind (10m/s). Its deficit on WT1 and WT2 is calculated.
Iteration 2: WT1 sees the free wind minus the deficit from WT0. Its deficit on WT2 is calculated and the effective wind speed at WT2 is updated.
In PyWake, the class is represented as follows:
[1]:
# Install PyWake if needed
try:
import py_wake
except ModuleNotFoundError:
!pip install git+https://gitlab.windenergy.dtu.dk/TOPFARM/PyWake.git
[2]:
from py_wake.wind_farm_models import PropagateDownwind
help(PropagateDownwind.__init__)
Help on function __init__ in module py_wake.wind_farm_models.engineering_models:
__init__(self, site, windTurbines, wake_deficitModel, superpositionModel=<py_wake.superposition_models.LinearSum object at 0x7f1768d5a7d0>, deflectionModel=None, turbulenceModel=None, rotorAvgModel=None, inputModifierModels=[])
Initialize flow model
Parameters

site : Site
Site object
windTurbines : WindTurbines
WindTurbines object representing the wake generating wind turbines
wake_deficitModel : DeficitModel
Model describing the wake(downstream) deficit
rotorAvgModel : RotorAvgModel, optional
Model defining one or more points at the down stream rotors to
calculate the rotor average wind speeds from.
if None, default, the wind speed at the rotor center is used
superpositionModel : SuperpositionModel
Model defining how deficits sum up
deflectionModel : DeflectionModel
Model describing the deflection of the wake due to yaw misalignment, sheared inflow, etc.
turbulenceModel : TurbulenceModel
Model describing the amount of added turbulence in the wake
site
and windTurbines
and wake_deficitModel
are required inputs. By default, the class uses the LinearSum
superposition model to add the wakes from upstream turbines.
All2AllIterative
The All2AllIterative
wind farm model is slower but is capable of handling blockage effects. It iterates until the effective wind speed converges or it reaches the max number of iterations (number of turbines). The converge tolerance is an input parameter. In each iteration it sums up the deficit from all wind turbine sources and calculates the deficit caused by the all wind turbines turbine on all wind turbines.
while ws_eff not converged:
ws_eff[all] = ws[all]  superposition(deficit[from_all,to_all])
ct[all] = windTurbines.ct(ws_eff[all])
deficit[from_all,to_all] = wakeDeficitModel(ct[all], distances[from_all,to_all], ...)
The proceedure is illustrated in the animation below:
Iteration 1: All three WT see the free wind (10m/s) and their CT values and resulting deficits are therefore equal.
Iteration 2: The local effective wind speeds are updated taking into account the wake and blockage effects of the other WT. Based on these wind speeds the CT and deficits are recalculated.
Iteration 3: Repeat until the flow field has converged.
In PyWake, the class is represented as follows:
[3]:
from py_wake.wind_farm_models import All2AllIterative
help(All2AllIterative.__init__)
Help on function __init__ in module py_wake.wind_farm_models.engineering_models:
__init__(self, site, windTurbines, wake_deficitModel, superpositionModel=<py_wake.superposition_models.LinearSum object at 0x7f1768d5b8e0>, blockage_deficitModel=None, deflectionModel=None, turbulenceModel=None, convergence_tolerance=1e06, rotorAvgModel=None, inputModifierModels=[])
Initialize flow model
Parameters

site : Site
Site object
windTurbines : WindTurbines
WindTurbines object representing the wake generating wind turbines
wake_deficitModel : DeficitModel
Model describing the wake(downstream) deficit
rotorAvgModel : RotorAvgModel, optional
Model defining one or more points at the down stream rotors to
calculate the rotor average wind speeds from.
if None, default, the wind speed at the rotor center is used
superpositionModel : SuperpositionModel
Model defining how deficits sum up
blockage_deficitModel : DeficitModel
Model describing the blockage(upstream) deficit
deflectionModel : DeflectionModel
Model describing the deflection of the wake due to yaw misalignment, sheared inflow, etc.
turbulenceModel : TurbulenceModel
Model describing the amount of added turbulence in the wake
convergence_tolerance : float or None
if float: maximum accepted change in WS_eff_ilk [m/s]
if None: return after first iteration. This only makes sense for benchmark studies where CT,
wakes and blockage are independent of effective wind speed WS_eff_ilk
In addition to the parameters specified in the PropagateDownwind
class, here we determine a convergence tolerance in terms of the maximum accepted change in WS_eff_ilk
in m/s. In this case, the blockage deficit model is set to None
as default, but this should be changed depending on the engineering wind farm model used.
As default, the All2AllIterative
simulation runs a PropagateDownwind
simulation during initialization and uses the resulting effective wind speed as starting condition for its own iterative process.
PropagateUpDownIterative
The PropagateUpDownIterative
wind farm model combines the approaches of PropagateDownwind
and All2AllIterative
Iteration 1 (Propagate wake down):
Iteration 1.1: WT0 sees the free wind (10m/s). Its wake deficit on WT1 and WT2 is calculated.
Iteration 1.2: WT1 sees the free wind minus the wake deficit from WT0. Its wake deficit on WT2 is calculated and the effective wind speed at WT2 is updated.
Iteration 2 (Propagate blockage up)
Iteration 2.1: All wind turbines see the free wind speed minus the wake deficit obtained in iteration 1. WT2 sees 6.73m/s and its blockage deficit on WT1 and WT0 is calculated.
Iteration 2.2: WT1 sees the free wind speed minus the wake deficit obtained in iteration 1 and the blockage deficit from WT2. Its blockage deficit on WT0 is calculated and the effective wind speed at WT0 is updated.
Iteration 3 (Propagate wake down):
Iteration 3.1: All wind turbines see the free wind minus the blockage obtained in iteration 2. WT0 seees 9.94 m/s and its wake deficit on WT1 and WT2 is calculated.
Iteration 3.2: WT1 sees the free wind minus the blockage deficit obtained in iteration 2 and the wake deficit from WT0. Its wake deficit on WT2 is calculated and the effective wind speed at WT2 is updated.
Iteration 4 (Propagate blockage up)
Iteration 4.1: All wind turbines see the free wind speed minus the wake deficit obtained in iteration 3. WT2 sees 6.74m/s and its blockage deficit on WT1 and WT0 is calculated.
Iteration 4.2: WT1 sees the free wind speed minus the wake deficit obtained in iteration 3 and the blockage deficit from WT2. Its blockage deficit on WT0 is calculated and the effective wind speed at WT0 is updated.
The constructor of PropagateUpDownIterative
is very similar to the constructor of All2AllIterative
:
[4]:
from py_wake.wind_farm_models import PropagateUpDownIterative
help(PropagateUpDownIterative.__init__)
Help on function __init__ in module py_wake.wind_farm_models.engineering_models:
__init__(self, site, windTurbines, wake_deficitModel, superpositionModel=<py_wake.superposition_models.LinearSum object at 0x7f1768d5a770>, blockage_deficitModel=None, deflectionModel=None, turbulenceModel=None, rotorAvgModel=None, inputModifierModels=[], convergence_tolerance=1e06)
Initialize flow model
Parameters

site : Site
Site object
windTurbines : WindTurbines
WindTurbines object representing the wake generating wind turbines
wake_deficitModel : DeficitModel
Model describing the wake(downstream) deficit
rotorAvgModel : RotorAvgModel, optional
Model defining one or more points at the down stream rotors to
calculate the rotor average wind speeds from.
if None, default, the wind speed at the rotor center is used
superpositionModel : SuperpositionModel
Model defining how deficits sum up
deflectionModel : DeflectionModel
Model describing the deflection of the wake due to yaw misalignment, sheared inflow, etc.
turbulenceModel : TurbulenceModel
Model describing the amount of added turbulence in the wake
Predefined Wind Farm Models
The predefines wind farm models are adapted from the literature, where their corresponding default superposition model, turbulence model and calibration parameters are taken from the paper describing each model.
The engineering wind farm models comprise:
Reference 
Name 
WindFarm Model 
Wake Deficit Model 
Blockage Deficit Model 
Superposition Model 
Turbulence Model 

Jensen_1983 

Ott_Nielsen_2014 

Ott_Nielsen_2014_Blockage 

Bastankhah_PorteAgel_2014 

IEA37CaseStudy1 

Niayifar_PorteAgel_2016 

Zong_PorteAgel_2020 
` ZongGaussianDeficit <WakeDeficitModels.ipynb#ZongGaussianDeficit>`__ 

Nygaard_2022 

Blondel_Cathelain_2020 
Default rotoraverage model:
RotorCenter
Default turbulence model:
None
All models require a Site
and a WindTurbine
object to run, and each of them may require additional inputs such as calibration parameters. The parameters shown are the default and used in the literature, but if necessary, they can be modified to better suit a particular case study.
In the case of Fuga, a file with look up tables is needed; the file is created by specifying the turbine’s rotor diameter, hub height and roughness length of the site to study.
For information on the calculation of the velocity deficit for each model, please refer to the Wake Deficit Models notebook.
Below are some examples of different wind farm models under the PropagateDownwind
base class. The full set of predefined wind farm models can be found in PyWake’s repository under the literature folder.
1) Bastankhah Gaussian
class Bastankhah_PorteAgel_2014(PropagateDownwind):
def __init__(self, site, windTurbines, k=0.0324555, ceps=.2, ct2a=ct2a_madsen, use_effective_ws=False,
rotorAvgModel=None, superpositionModel=SquaredSum(),
deflectionModel=None, turbulenceModel=None, groundModel=None):
2) Niayifar Gaussian
class Niayifar_PorteAgel_2016(PropagateDownwind):
def __init__(self, site, windTurbines, a=[0.38, 4e3], ceps=.2, superpositionModel=LinearSum(),
deflectionModel=None, turbulenceModel=CrespoHernandez(), rotorAvgModel=None, groundModel=None,
use_effective_ws=True, use_effective_ti=True):
3) Zong Gaussian
class Zong_PorteAgel_2020(PropagateDownwind):
def __init__(self, site, windTurbines, a=[0.38, 4e3], deltawD=1. / np.sqrt(2), lam=7.5, B=3,
rotorAvgModel=None, superpositionModel=WeightedSum(), deflectionModel=None,
turbulenceModel=CrespoHernandez(), groundModel=None, use_effective_ws=True, use_effective_ti=True):
3) TurbOPark
class Nygaard_2022(PropagateDownwind):
def __init__(self, site, windTurbines):
wake_deficitModel = TurboGaussianDeficit(
ct2a=ct2a_mom1d,
groundModel=Mirror(),
rotorAvgModel=GaussianOverlapAvgModel())
4) Fuga
class Ott_Nielsen_2014(PropagateDownwind):
def __init__(self, LUT_path, site, windTurbines,
rotorAvgModel=None, deflectionModel=None, turbulenceModel=None, remove_wriggles=False):
In addition, Fuga’s wind farm model comes with the possibility of modeling blockage. For this, the All2AllIterative
base class is used.
class Ott_Nielsen_2014_Blockage(All2AllIterative):
def __init__(self, LUT_path, site, windTurbines, rotorAvgModel=None,
deflectionModel=None, turbulenceModel=None, convergence_tolerance=1e6, remove_wriggles=False):